Both the Moon and Mars have been on spacefaring nations’ radars for the past several decades, with NASA shifting back-and-forth between the two destinations, it seems, almost every time Washington leadership changes. But what are the differences between the two worlds with respect to long-term human settlement? Is one superior to the other? SpaceVault invited Emerging Futures to answer this question quantitatively, considering multiple aspects of human life support and the needs of a self-sufficient technological society in space. Results are summarized in a companion infographic at SpaceVault, and published in detail here.